What’s new in Black-Hole this month

Black holes are such dense points in space that produce deep sinks of gravity. Beyond a certain area, the mighty pull of the gravity of a black hole cannot escape even light. And when something goes too close, whether it be the star, earth, or spacecraft, is stretched and compressed as putty in a theoretical process known as spaghettification.

1. Researchers experimented with stationary Hawking radiation in an analog black hole:

Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking predicted that a tiny volume of light is naturally released by a black hole known as Hawking radiation while there would be no exit from it. Also, researchers from the TII recently carried out the analysis to test the theoretical forecasts of Hawking. They investigated, in particular, whether Hawking radiation was stagnant inside a laboratory atmosphere in an artificial black hole.

Steinhauer and his team developed the artificial black hole about 0.1 millimeters in length and consisted of gas of 8000 rubidium atoms, a minimal number of particles. The black hole was killed any time the researchers took an image of it. They then had to make a black hole, take a snapshot of it, and then construct another one to track it over time. This process has been replicated multiple times for several months. And the results of the experiments are as follows:

  • This analogy black hole has hawking radiation made up of sound waves instead of light waves. Sound waves are not permitted to enter the horizon and exit from the black holes; rubidium atoms flow faster than sound speed. However, the gas moves steadily, sound waves may pass free of charge beyond the event horizon.
  • Steinhauer clarifies, “Rubidium flows rapidly and quicker than the sound speed and sounds cannot refute movement. Let’s presume you tried the current to swim. You cannot go forward if this current goes quicker than you can float because you are pulled down since the flow move so fast, and so you stay stationary in the opposite direction. This is what it would like to be trapped in a black hole and try from inside to hit the event horizon.
  • The radiation released with black holes is spontaneous, according to Hawking’s assumptions. Steinhauer and his associates have proven this in their artificial black hole in one of their previous experiments. In their recent research, they investigated why their black hole remains in radiation.

Overall, the results suggest that radiation released from black holes, as predicted by Hawking, is stationary. Alongside this discovery, the experimental analysis may validate whether the analog black hole is still right to the actual black hole.

At some point in the experiments of researchers, the radiation around the black analog hole was extreme because it was made into the inner horizon. At Einstein, the theory of general relativity includes an outward horizon opposite the event horizon that separates the field near its center.

Also, Some physicists predict that radiation emitted by an analog black hole forms an internal horizon that becomes more strong. This was, of course, done in the analog black hole created by the researchers of Technion. This study would thus inspire another physicalist to investigate the effect on the intensity of Hawking radiation in a black hole of an inner horizon formation.

2. Cygnus X-1 contains a 21-solar mass black hole

This artist’s conception of Cygnus X-1 shows the black hole drawing material from companion star (right) into a hot, swirling disk. (Image credit: Chandra X-Ray Observatory, NASA)
Cygnus X-1 as imaged by a balloon bourne telescope. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

The goal for the experiment was designed to examine whether the radiation from their black hole is stationary too, that is, whether the black hole itself is steady over time. One of the most prominent black holes worldwide is located in the Cygnus X-1 system. It once became the target of betting between Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne, two prominent physicists. Thorne bet that Hawking was a black hole in 1974; and that Hawking happily granted in 1990 as soon as the data arrived.

Recent discoveries of the first-ever observed black hole caused astronomers to doubt whether they are sure of the most elusive objects in the Universe. As reported in the journal Science today (18 February 2021), the study reveals a structure named Cygnus X-1, which comprises the most enormous black hole in the stellar mass observed through the use of gravity waves. Cygnus X-1 is one of Earth’s nearest black holes. In 1964, a pair of Geiger counters were discovered when a suborbital rocket from New M Mexico was launched onboard.

Hawking claimed that in 1974 it was not a dark hole – a scholar of physicists Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne’s famous theoretical wager. And Stephen Hawkins won the bet in 1990. The Very Long Baseline Array – a continental-size telescope composed of ten dishes scattered throughout the 

United States – is used by a multinational team of astronomers to determine space distance. In this work, a very innovative method was used.

“If we can view the same object from different locations, we can calculate its distance away from us by measuring how far the object appears to move relative to the background,” said lead researcher, Professor James Miller-Jones from Curtin University and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR).

What researchers found:

The black hole is much larger than commonly understood according to recent studies in the journal Science, so much so that what astronomers thought they learned about how a black hole is created now is so complicated.

Through various modern approaches, astronomers have discovered that the Cygnus-X-1 is 50% larger in nature than previously believed, 21 times the Sun’s mass. Astronomers from the Curtin University of Australia described this as a new record for a dark hole specifically detected due to matter. Based on these recent observations, the black hole was also located 20% further from Earth than was previously believed.

Sources:

  1. https://phys.org/news/2021-02-stationary-hawking-analog-black-hole.html
  2. https://physicsforme.com/
  3. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/02/23/science.abb3363?rss=1
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_X-1
  5. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349417551_Cygnus_X-1_contains_a_21-solar_mass_black_hole-Implications_for_massive_star_winds

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