-By Monika Rajput
As you have read in the previous blog, AI is the “it” thing in the world at present times. This is a new technology that has the ability to fully re-define our future of this planet. There is so much information about artificial intelligence floating in the world right now. This massive amount of information makes it a bit difficult to explain or exactly define artificial intelligence in daily lives. We have a huge about of sci-fi movies and novels being written or produced, all of which have extensive usage of artificial intelligence. The world in those movies looks so different from ours. It remains very important to know about artificial intelligence because it is literally changing the world. We need to know about it to be able to adapt and continue in the new world that is to come in our future.
You must heard of these difference!
There are three types of artificial intelligence-1. Narrow or weak AI, 2. General or strong AI and 3. Super AI or artificial super-intelligence.
Narrow or weak Artificial Intelligence
Artificial narrow intelligence or weak AI is the type of AI that exists in our world in the present times. This is the type of AI that we see being used around us in the world. This weak artificial intelligence has a very narrow range of abilities. Narrow of weak artificial intelligence is fully oriented towards achieving a single aim and completing a single task.
The face recognition that you might have in your phone, the voice assistants, browsing through the internet, all such single goal-oriented abilities are narrow or weak artificial intelligence. Narrow intelligence might be able to perform just singular tasks but it is very good at performing them. It is carefully programmed to fulfill a single requirement and it fulfills it perfectly and really quickly.
Their ability to do their task properly and with great results may look amazing to us or any other onlooker but the truth remains that they come with their own set of limitations. Artificial narrow intelligence is not able to copy or mimic the intelligence of a human mind. All it can be used to do is to simulate the behavior of human beings with respect to contexts and parameters whose range is not so broad. This is why narrow AI is also called weak AI.
There are many examples of narrow or weak artificial intelligence that can be seen in the world around us. When you use the voice recognition feature of any virtual assistant like Google Assistant or Siri, you are working with a narrow AI. When you are using a car with a self-driving mode on it uses vision recognition to manipulate the car’s direction, this is also an example of narrow AI. While there are a number of other examples of narrow AI, it is also true that all these AI work only for a specific result. All of these AI can only be programmed to perform and finish a specific single task. This is the major limitation of narrow or weak artificial intelligence.
Natural language processing is used by all of these narrow or weak artificial intelligence machines and equipment to be able to do their specified tasks. AI is programmed in such a manner that it is able to interact with and around a human being in a very customized and natural manner. This becomes possible because they can use and understand the text and speech used in a natural normal language.
Narrow AI can be of two types. It can either have limited memory with it or it can be reactive AI. Reactive AI is the most basic form of AI there can be. On one hand, reactive AI holds no ability to be able to hold and store data, and it cannot respond to a new stimulus without having any prior exchange with that stimulus. On the other hand limited memory, AI is able to store new data in a limited capacity and can also old data to make new decisions regarding a new stimulus. Limited memory AI is the one used extensively in most machines to make them able to retain a deep amount of data and also provide personalized and different experiences to different users.
General/deep or strong Artificial Intelligence-
Artificial general intelligence is also well known as strong artificial intelligence because of its ability to learn new things, repeat or mimic human behavior and even uses the intelligence and data acquired to solve new and different problems. What makes general or strong AI so amazing and incredible is the fact that general AI at any given moment has the ability to act exactly in a way a human being would and be indistinguishable. This level of AI has yet not been achieved and found by scientists studying and developing artificial intelligence.
This has not been possible to achieve because the scientists have still not been able to find a way through which they can make a machine have all cognitive capabilities. They have still not been able to somehow bring consciousness to machines and this is what is needed to get to and achieve general or strong AI in this world. For a machine to have general AI it will need to properly learn new things from different new experiences. Not only will they have to be fully efficient in singular tasks, but they will also have to be able to apply their knowledge gained from different experiences to a new and wide range of problems and situations. This is why cognitive skills are essential in a machine for it to have general or strong AI.
In order to achieve strong AI, the scientists will have to somehow make their machines be able to learn and find out the beliefs, needs, emotions, and thought processes of other things and entities with intelligence that will be around the machine. It is important to understand that general AI does not mean or depend on a machine replicating or mimicking human behavior. It is about the machine being able to actually understand humans like humans understand one another. The human mind is what general AI is modeled after and so the challenges of developing it are immense and numerous.
There remains a major part of the human brain whose working is still unknown to scientists and researchers and this makes the entire process of developing general or strong AI even more difficult. General AI is supposed to be conscious and to some extent driven by emotions like a human being is. This is the AI that we see in major motion sci-fi movies or read about in sci-fi novels. General AI is supposed to have the very abilities of a human being.
The best attempt at achieving general or strong AI has been the supercomputer- Fujitsu-built K. But even with this supercomputer, only one second of neural activity was stimulated in 40 minutes. This just shows that it could still be a long time before strong AI will be achieved and used in the world. But with an increase in the advancement of technologies like voice or facial recognition, we can be sure of seeing a major improvement in those machines’ ability to see and learn new things from experience.
Super AI or artificial super-intelligence-
A super AI or artificial super-intelligence is one that has abilities surpassing those of human beings. A super AI is supposed to be more capable than a normal human being. This is a fully hypothetical type of artificial intelligence where a machine will not just be able to understand and replicate human behavior or mind. With super AI a machine will have a mind of its own; it will have a level of self-awareness and be more capable than a human being in all aspects.
The dystopian world of sci-fi has for long relied on superintelligence for its plot point. In texts or movies like those, we often see robots becoming self-aware, making an army for themselves, and overthrowing and enslaving the entire human race. Super AI will not only let a machine understand emotions and have cognitive abilities, it will let the machine have new emotions, desires, beliefs, and a thought process that is it’s own.
It is to be remembered that super AI is a fully imaginary and hypothetical concept. Artificial superintelligence is imagined to be better than humans at everything and every aspect of their lives and existence. They will obviously have larger memory and the processing of data will be faster in an artificial superintelligence than in a human mind. They will be super-beings who will be able to solve problems more efficiently than human beings and will have a better and faster decision making process too. As appealing as this idea of having this super-intelligent machine in the world is, its existence can prove fatal to the human world.
As the world is progressing and narrow AI is developing and getting better, scientists and researchers are able to envision a world where general AI, as well as super AI, will exist. What world would that be and how different would things be for the human race then is a question whose answer is full of speculation. Scientists predict that we have still a long time to go before we can see the existence of super artificial intelligence in the world, but the jump from general artificial intelligence to super AI will not be a big one. At the end of the day, artificial intelligence is designed and created to make our lives simpler, faster, and easier. What the future might hold cannot be told right now but in the world of new discoveries and innovations, artificial intelligence and its improvements are always interesting and something to look forward to.