A modern integrated air defense system is very advanced as compared to surface-to-air missiles or their radar system and command vehicle. It consists of a lot of complex features like weapons, equipment, procedures, personnel, and structure that can be integrated to combat enemy airborne attacks very efficiently. Modern integrated air defense system uses various channels for advancing communication systems like fiber-optics networking, electromagnetic spectrum linking, radio frequency, and traditional landlines.
The modern integrated defense system effectively performs various functions as enlisted below –
1. Air surveillance
This is the first step of a modern integrated air defense system. In air surveillance, various sub-functions are performed like detection, initiation, identification, correlation, and maintenance of any threat. An advanced radar system is used for detecting any threat that enters the coverage area. It is described as the “eyes” of any air defense system.
2. Battle management
This is the second step of a modern integrated air defense system. In battle management, various sub-functions include evaluating threats, engage decisions, selecting weapons, and engaging authority. It efficiently identifies the threat and selects the required weapon to overcome that threat and the final step in this process is engagement authority that confirms the mentioned decisions.
3. Weapon control
This is the third and final step of a modern integrated air defense system. In weapon control various sub-functions include pair, acquire, track, guide, kill, and finally assassinate the given target. The decisions of air surveillance and battle management are transitioned into the weapon control system.
Air Defense System of Various Countries
1. S-400 Triumph
S-400 Triumph is considered the most powerful air defense missile system in the world. It is developed by Russian’s Almaz Central Design Bureau. A layered defense is formed as it has the ability to fire three kinds of missiles at a time. It efficiently performs integration of command and control center to the anti-aircraft missiles, radar as well as automatically detecting and targeting system.
2. David’s Sling
David’s Sling is also considered one of the best air defense systems in the world. It was developed in collaboration by Rafael Advanced Defense System of Israel and Raytheon. It consists of an electronically scanned array of multi-mission radar that effectively identifies and targets any incoming threat.
AKASH is considered the best short-range surface-to-air defense missile system in the world. It can efficiently protect any vulnerable point or area from any type of air attack. It has the ability to engage more than one target in autonomous or group mode. It consists of an electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) configuration that is based on a mobile platform.
4. S-300VM (Antey-2500)
S-300VM is considered one of the best long-range missile defense systems in the world. It was manufactured and designed by the Almaz-Antey. It provides various enhanced combat techniques including anti-ballistic and multi-channel systems. It can efficiently destroy cruise missiles, aero-ballistic, fixed-wing aircraft, as well as short and medium-range ballistic missiles.
THAAD is considered the best anti-ballistic missile defense system in the world. It was developed by the United States of America. It consists of a very easy transportable feature to target any incoming threat. It is very effective over the theatre and tactical ballistic missiles. It covers a range of about 200 km along with an altitude of up to 150 km. The success rate of THAAD till now is 100%.
6. MIM-104 Patriot
MIM-104 Patriot is also considered one of the best long-range air defense systems in the world. It was co-developed by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (Florida) and Raytheon (Massachusetts). It covers a very large range of areas and every possible altitude in any weather condition. It can efficiently destroy any advanced aircraft and cruise missile in its range.
7. Hong Qi 9 (HQ-9)
HQ-9 or Hong Qi 9 is considered one of the best air defense missile systems in the world. It was designed and developed by China. It is as much effective as the S-300 Russian air defense system. It was adopted in the year 1997 by the Chinese air defense system. It can easily destroy various helicopters, aircraft, cruise missiles, UAVs, theater ballistic missiles, guided bombs, and air-to-ground missiles. It can effectively destroy medium as well as long-range targets.
8. ASTER 30 SAMP/T
ASTER 30 SAMP/T is the best anti-aircraft defense system of the 21st century specially designed for theatre projection. It was developed by Eurosam and is co-owned by Thales and MBDA Missile System. It is one of the parts of Aster 15 and the other Aster missile family. It is efficiently used by the various air force, army, and naval forces of the Italian Army, the French Army, the Republic of Singapore Air Force, and the French Air Force.
9. Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS)
Medium Extended Air Defense System is considered one of the best ground-mobile air and missile defense system in the world. It was developed by the United States of America, Italy, and Germany in order to replace the Patriot air defense missile system. It covers a 360-degree and very long-range coverage.
BARAK-8 is considered one of the best long-range surface-to-air missile defense systems in the world. It was co-developed by IAI(Israeli Aerospace Industry) and DRDO of India. It can effectively target any threat with 360-degree coverage and is efficient over several airborne threats. It is capable of engaging more than one target anytime during day or night and in any weather condition. BARAK-8 air defense system constitutes 3 variants. The first variant is the BARAK 8 AMD/LRSAM, a naval air defense system that was designed and developed by the Israeli Navy. BARAK 8 AMD/LRSAM is currently used by India.
11. Iron Dome
Iron Dome is considered the best air defense system in the world. It was developed and designed jointly by the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aerospace Industries. It is a short-range ground-to-air defense system having a range of about 70 km. It consists a radar system and a Tamir interceptor system. It can effectively target and destroy each and every missile or airborne threats that come into its range.
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